Dictionary

  • Acne

    Acne is a skin disease caused by the abnormally high activity of sebaceous glands that lead to an excessive secretion of sebum combined with a dysfunction in the maturation of keratinocytes and the abnormal development of bacteria called Propionibacterium acnes. Acne therefore occurs mainly in areas rich in sebaceous glands such as the back, neckline and of course the face. Acne can leave unsightly scars. Creams, peels, masks, lasers and various drugs can fight against acne.
  • Age Spots

    Age Spots or solar lentigines are a common form of hyperpigmentation caused by sun damage. Although they are also sometimes known as “liver” spots this has nothing to do with liver or anything that is associated with the function of the liver. They are usually found on the hands and face or other areas frequently exposed to the sun and will most likely increase with age. Age Spots can vary in color from brown to black. They can also be very small or quite large and often appear in groups or clusters. They are more common on people with fair skin who don’t have as much natural protection from the sun. Pass the age of 40, your skin simply becomes less able to cope with and regenerate from sun damage. Instead of healing naturally, age spots develop excessive pigmentation in the skin. As soon as age spots start to appear on the face, the process has been triggered. One then has to protect oneself for life from the sun with “sun block” creams and antioxidant creams. Age spots are not cancerous and there’s no health risk connected to them, but they can be embarrassing and unsightly. The reason they are known as Age Spots is due to the fact that the melanin accumulating in the skin over the years as a person ages can make them more susceptible to them, but these pigmentation marks are not exclusively caused by aging.
  • Alpha hydroxy acids

    Alpha hydroxy acids are generaly considered to be one of the cornestones of medical grade skin care (cosmeceuticals and chemical peels). The AHAs most commonly used in cosmetic applications are commonly called fruit acids (including lactic acid, glycolic acid and citric acid). AHAs have an effect on the superficial (epidermal) and deeper (dermal) layers of the skin. At the epidermal layer they encourage regeneration of the stratum corneum. This is caused by a shedding of the existing corneocytes. Certain AHAs are part of the NMFs (Natural Moisturizing Factor) present in the stratum corneum and are capable of increasing the content in water of the epidermis’ superficial layers. AHAs also act on the dermis by increasing the proliferation of fibroblasts, the synthesis of collagen, mucopolysaccharides and hyaluronic acid and increase skin thickness without detectable inflammation. Peels containing AHAs reduce fine wrinkling, treat areas of dryness, reduce pigmentation, aid in the control of acne, smooth rough dry skin and improve the texture of sun-damaged skin.
  • Angiogenesis

    Angiogenesis. Physiological process through which new blood vessels develop around a wound, enabling the latter to receive the elements needed for healing. The platelets present in our blood contain a number of growth factors capable of stimulating angiogenesis. These platelets injected into our skin (the technique is called PRP) can therefore be used to stimulate angiogenic activity, thus improving the oxygenation and nutrition of the skin in the area being treated.
  • Antioxidants

    Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances in our bodies. They minimize damage and keep body cells healthy. Anti-oxidants serve to protect skin tissue against harm that can be caused by compounds called free radicals. Free radicals are capable of causing damage to body tissue and increase the risk of disease as well as hasten the pace of aging. Fruits and vegetables are rich in natural antioxidants (grapes, apples, pomegranates). Although the body absorbs anti-oxidants through a range of foods and drink, it can also be supplemented with topical vitamins as the skin is the last bodily organ to benefit from anti-oxidant intake. Anti-oxidant serums protect against damage to skin tissue resulting from climate and environmental factors and also assist in the healing of damaged skin whilst holding back the appearance of wrinkles and other ageing signs. The combination of sun screens and creams containing antioxidants offers the best protection against the effects of UV rays on the skin’s premature ageing. It is therefore recommended to combine a diet rich in antioxidants and antioxidant creams in order to target both the skin’s deep and superficial layers.
  • Apoptosis

    Process of natural cell death – as opposed to necrosis. At the end of their natural cycle, cells disintegrate without leaving any cellular debris and therefore without creating an inflammatory response.

  • Betahydroxy acid

    Betahydroxy acid, also known as salicylic acid is lipid (oil) soluble and is a key chemical in many peels and acne treatments. Its solubility means that beta hydroxy acid is able to penetrate into the pores which contain sebum and exfoliate the dead skin cells that build up. This has an effect of unclogging black heads and reducing white heads. Chemical peels containing BHA are recommended for acneic skin which is prone to ‘break outs’ or spots.
  • Ceramides

    Polar lipids essential for the proper functioning of the skin barrier. Their role is to avoid the excessive loss of water through the skin’s stratum corneum. A decrease in ceramides present in the skin leads to dry skin. The choice of soaps used is decisive in their preservation. Synthesised ceramides can be added to an emollient cream. They can be extracted from various origins (plant, animal, synthetic) and can be used in moisturising creams. Their concentration must be always higher than 1%.
  • Collagen

    A full 80 percent of the dry weight of our skin consists of collagen. It’s therefore the most prominent of the three main components to our skin’s extra cellular matrix — the tissue that gives skin its structural support. The other components are elastin and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Collagen is a fibrous protein in the dermis. In young skin, it is resistant and elastic. With age, its production decreases and deteriorates in quality.
  • Corneocytes

    Corneocytes are biologically dead cells. They nevertheless remain active. They form the most superficial layer of our skin (stratum corneum). They gradually flake off as new epidermal cells come to maturity and migrate towards the surface. The skin’s ageing process is characterised by its irregular desquamation and loss of corneocyte compaction. This leads to rough skin. Peels are used to eliminate the dead cells on the surface of the skin. Cohesion between corneocytes is maintained due to a lipid cement which contains ceramides and other molecules capable of binding water (hygroscopic effect) regrouped under the term NMF (Natural Moisturising Factor). Cosmetic products are applied on this stratum corneum.
  • Dry skin

    Dry skin is a skin lacking lipids, water or both. Ultraviolet rays, pollution or weather conditions can worsen this state. When the skin is dry through lack of sebum, there are fewer protective lipids and it reacts more strongly to aggressions. It will wrinkle earlier than other types of skin. Dry skin may be caused by a lack of exfoliation and inadequate moisturisation. A build up of dead skin cells causes the skin to feel rough and dry. As we age, the enzyme that causes these cells to shed, becomes less active and this slows down the natural rate of exfoliation. The most effective treatment for dry skin is exfoliation with an alpha and beta hydroxy acid to speed cell turnover. Moisturisers with natural moisturising factors and intracellular lipids will increase skin hydration.
  • Exfoliation

    Exfoliation is a naturally occurring process whereby dead surface skin cells naturally slough off and reveal new cells. This natural skin exfoliation may need assistance in, for example when the skin type is dry and the dead cells accumulate quickly creating a dull appearance. Oily skin may have difficulty due to the amount of sebum produced. Aging skin also slows down its cellular renewal process. Exfoliation helps to normalise the speed of cell turnover and helps to prevent negative consequences for conditions such as skin cancer. Exfoliation also helps to improve many skin conditions including melasma, acne and rosacea. It is now thought that chemical exfoliation with Alpha and Betahydroxy acids is the best method of exfoliation.
  • Elastin

    Elastin is structural protein that ensures the elasticity of all tissues and organs in the body. As the elastin in our skin is exposed to the sun it becomes progressively damaged, and over time the healthy elastic tissue is replaced with damaged, degraded elastin. Healthy, undamaged skin is usually 80 percent collagen and 4 percent elastin fibers. But in sun-damaged skin, those percentages become askew, and up to 80 percent of the skin may consist of abnormal elastin fibers rather than collagen. Whereas undamaged skin has a great deal of elasticity, sun-damaged skin is much more prone to wrinkles and is very inelastic.
  • Epidermis

    Epidermis is the skin’s superficial layer in contact with the outside. The epidermis is made up of a number of layers of cells – keratinocytes – which originate from the basal layer. New keratinocytes migrate towards the surface of the epidermis and are gradually shed and replaced by younger cells. During their migration to the surface, keratocytes produce corneocytes that form the stratum corneum – outermost part of the epidermis. Stratum corneum is relatively waterproof and when undamaged prevents bacteria and viruses entering the body. Throughout the basal layer of the epidemis are melanocyte cells which produce the pigment melanin, contributing to skin colour. The main function of melanin is to filter out UV radiation which can damage cellular DNA.
  • Extracellular Matrix

    The collagen-elastin matrix is the fibrous web of proteins that forms the majority of the dry weight of our skin. It gives skin strength and elasticity. Sun-caused degradation of this matrix is a major source of wrinkles and other signs of “aging” skin.
  • Fibroblasts

    Cells responsible for synthesising the extracellular matrix. In the dermis, their number decreases with age, leading to a decrease in the synthesis of collagen and elastic fibres. They are thus responsible for the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. The injection into the dermis or underlying hypodermis of fillers is capable of “boosting” the fibroblasts, which resume their active synthesis of collagen and other molecules in the extracellular matrix.
  • Freckles

    Freckles are harmless tan spots of melanin common in people of fair complexion. Freckles are genetic in nature and can be triggered by exposure to sunlight. That’s why your freckles usually appear in the summertime and fade in the winter. Extremely pale or fair skinned people do not produce enough melanin to protect themselves from the sun, and therefore produce these dark pigmented spots as a result. Freckles are not completely unrelated to age spots, as it is the sun damage that is creating spotting.
  • Free radicals

    Free radicals are unstable molecules that, when not neutralised by antioxidants, irreversibly damage the main constituent elements of the body’s cells and cause illnesses, cancers and ageing. Chronic diseases and lifestyles (tobacco, pollution, sun, pesticides, stress, unhealthy diet rich in sugar and fat) encourage the excess production of free radicals.
  • Hair follicle

    Miniscule skin structure in which grows the hair. To obtain permanent hair removal, the follicle must be destroyed. This destruction can be carried out via hair removal by electrolysis or laser hair removal.
  • Hyaluronic acid

    Hyaluronic acid represents 50% of the basic substance called extracellular matrix in the skin. This substance contributes to the dermis’ morphogenesis, acts as a support for the blood vessels, nerve fibres and glands, plays a role in the skin’s metabolic exchanges, influences the distribution of water and electrolytes in the skin’s different compartments and plays an important role in moisturising. With age, the quantity and quality of hyaluronic acid decreases, thus disrupting the skin’s physiology and its aesthetic quality. The skin dries out, wrinkles and becomes hollow.
  • Hypodermis

    Hypodermis is the layer that is found under the dermis. It is essentially made up of fat cells and fibrous membrane. The fibrous membranes that separate the cluster of fat cells are arranged obliquely in the direction of the skin’s surface for men and vertically for women. This difference in the architecture of the hypodermis seems to explain why cellulite can be observed in women and not in men.
  • Inflammation

    Localised reaction, induced by an attack on the tissues, to eliminate, dilute or imprison the agent responsible for the attack, as well as the damaged tissue. The inflammation is clinically characterised by pain, heat, redness, oedemas, and the loss of function. There are two types of inflammation: acute, for example, caused by excessive exposure to the sun (sunburn), and chronic inflammation caused by inflammatory diseases or bacteria. Chronic inflammation causes premature ageing of tissue (the skin for example).
  • Keratocytes

    Keratocytes are cells that make up 90% of the skin’s superficial layer (epidermis) and keratinous appendage (nails, hair, etc)
  • Keratosis

    Excrescences such as warts and calluses. These include, amongst others, actinic keratosis (sun keratosis) that are precancerous, caused by an excessive exposure to the sun and characterised by fine marks, desquamation and a brownish-pink colour. Seborrheic keratosis are benign lesions, frequently visible in elderly people. These lesions are in general pigmented and can be removed without leaving any scars using special lasers.
  • Kojic Acid

    An inhibitor for the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of our skin pigment, used in the formulation of certain peels and skin lightening creams.
  • Lactic acid

    Lactic acid present in milk. Used to moisturise the epidermis .Results in a reduction of fine lines and uneven pigmentation leaving improved tone and texture. With regular use, lactic acid will increase skin hydration, reduce visibility of pores and lighten epidermal hyper-pigmentation. The result is smooth and radiant skin.
  • Melanin

    Black or red pigment responsible for the skin and hair’s coloration. Melanin is present in the epidermis and synthesised by melanocytes. It notably helps to protect the skin against the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays by forming a barrier between light and the cells’ nucleus.
  • Melanocytes

    Melanocytes are cells located in the deepest layer of the epidermis. Their function is to synthesise melanin, a pigment that contributes to the skin’s coloration, then to distribute it to the keratocytes.
  • Melasma

    Melasma is the formation of irregular pigmented patches and is commonly found on the sun-exposed face in the period during or after pregnancy or in women who are on the contraceptive pill. It’s thought to be caused by increasing levels of both estrogen and progesterone, which stimulate melanocytes resulting in increased production of the normal tanning protective chemical. Melasma spots are similar in appearance to age spots but are larger areas of darkened skin. The condition is also known as “pregnancy mask” because of its appearance as “mask like” patches on the face. Melasma is usually found on the cheeks, temples and forehead but can also be found on the body. Melasma is aggravated by exposure to sun.
  • Normal skin

    Normal skin is soft to the touch, uniform and without any apparent imperfections. It can sometimes be a little more greasy and shiny in the “T” zone, made up of the forehead, nose and chin. The production of sebum is never excessive. There are no signs of desquamation or dehydration.
  • Oily skin

    Oily skin is linked to the abundance and nature of the sebum excreted on the surface of the skin by the sebaceous glands. It is most often present in teenagers and young adults. Excess sebum gives it a shiny look, notably on the forehead, sides of the nose and chin. A greasy skin is thick, covered in an exaggerated lipidic film. It is nevertheless less sensitive to outside factors, to dryness and, thus less liable to wrinkles and marks of ageing.
  • Oxidation

    Chemical reaction that involves oxygen’s free radicals, damages the cells and accelerates the ageing of the skin. Antioxidants prevent oxidisation processes.
  • Photoaging

    Photo-damage, or sun damage, is the process by which the ultraviolet rays of the sun harm our skin and its appearance. With repeated sun exposure, both collagen and the elastin fibers become damaged, causing skin to lose its structure and, eventually, to wrinkle and sag. As we expose our skin to the sun over time, the sun’s ultraviolet rays activate genes that are already in our skin, causing them to function in an abnormal way, producing damaged-looking skin. The damage to the skin resulting from this sun-induced ageing adds to the effects of chronological ageing. Skin treatments may reverse this process by creating newer-looking skin. Photo-ageing takes the form of skin alterations clinically characterised by wrinkles, roughness, a lack of elasticity, depigmentation or hyperpigmentation marks and a variety of benign, pre-malignant or malignant tumours.
  • Pigmentation

    Pigmentation is one of the most common skin conditions affecting people of all skin types and ages worldwide. There are many different types of abnormal skin pigmentation known by various different names including hyperpigmentation, age spots, brown spots, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, solar lentigines and melasma. Pigmentation manifests itself as patchy, uneven, discoloured spots on the skin that are darker in color than the normal surrounding. Abnormal skin pigmentation occurs when there is excess in melanin production, which forms deposits in the skin and can be caused by a variety of factors including hormones, genetics, medication, the aging process, skin diseases such as acne and injuries to the skin, but by far the biggest cause is sun damage. Exposure to the sun can cause patches of pigmentation to form on the skin and can worsen existing pigmentation abnormalities such as freckles or melasma, which have been caused by other factors. This happens because melanin absorbs the energy of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays in order to protect the skin from overexposure.
  • Pilary cycle

    Hair follows cycles of growth then loss in order to grow again. Every pilary cycle renews the hair in 3 stages and can last over a period of up to 5 years. 20 to 25 successive cycles can be observed in a lifetime. For human beings, cycles are not synchronous, thus avoiding the moulting that can be observed in animals with fur. The 3 pilary cycle stages are: • The anagen stage during which the hair bulb grows. • The catagen stage during which the hair bulb is dormant. • The telogen stage during which the dead hair is expelled by the new hair bulb.
  • Plasma

    Blood’s liquid part. Blood cells, notably red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets can be found in plasma. Plasma is obtained thanks to blood centrifugation and filtering.
  • Platelet Rich Plasma

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Blood centrifugation can be controlled in order to obtain white or red blood cell-free plasma, with a concentrate of platelets. This concentrate of platelets is then injected into the donor’s skin, in the area you wish to regenerate. This technique is particularly useful in the suborbitary area, the neck and the back of the hands.
  • Platelets

    Small disc-shaped blood cells required to form blood clots. They help stop bleeding and play a role in the formation of ecchymoses. Moreover, these cells have organelles capable of synthesising growth factors needed to regenerate wounded tissue.
  • Post–inflammatory pigmentation

    Post–inflammatory pigmentation is caused when the skin has been damaged or undergone some form of trauma. It’s commonly found in people have had acne but can also be caused by sunburn, surgery and other factors.
  • Retinol

    Retinol is a type of Vitamin A, which is very beneficial to humans. It is a fat- soluble antioxidant vitamin.. Vitamin A is converted from food substances by the body and is essential for vision and skin health. All retinoid forms of vitamin A can be used in medical grade skin care but potential problems with skin sensitivity can occur. Retinoic Acid (Tretinoin) may be used in the treatment of acne as a topical cream; a derivative of this (Roaccutane) may be used orally to treat severe cases. Cosmeceuticals use derivatives of vitamin A due to their anti-ageing properties. Vitamin A is absorbed through the skin, it increases cell turnover and thickens the epidermis. Vitamin A also stimulates collagen production, giving a more youthful appearance.
  • Rosacea

    Rosacea is a facial rash that occurs in middle-aged men and women. It affects people mainly in the 30s and 40s, especially those with fair-skin, blue eyes. Rosacea is a very common, but often misdiagnosed skin condition. The effects of rosacea are mostly redness and swelling of the face, but rosacea can also appear on the back, chest, neck, and scalp. Rosacea of the eyes is even possible. Awareness of rosacea is so crucial because its red, splotchy, rash-like symptoms can easily be confused with other skin conditions such as acne. Rosacea can get worse, progressing to persistent redness, facial burning or itching, pimples, bumps, and visible blood vessels. If left untreated for too long, treatments for rosacea can become less effective. That’s why identifying rosacea and starting an early rosacea treatment plan is critical. Being better aware of rosacea might mean that the localized rash you’re experience doesn’t become a big problem later on. The cause of rosacea is unknown but triggers that cause flushing and blushing play a part in its devolvement: exposure to extreme temperatures, anxiety, stress, exercise, alcohol, spicy foods, even a cool breeze. Avoiding these triggers might delay the onset of rosacea, but if it’s in your genes then you’re basically a walking rosacea time bomb.
  • Sebaceous glands

    Sebaceous glands are small pockets appended to the hair follicle. They produce sebum (fatty acids + triglycerides + cholesterol) that is discharged on the surface of the skin to mix with sweat and constitute our hydro lipid film. They are found particularly on the face, neck, shoulders, neckline and upper back. Secretion depends on hormones, in particular testosterone. It varies with the seasons, lessening in winter and with age, the secretion peaks between puberty and 50 years of age.
  • Sebum

    Greasy secretion produced by sebaceous glands, whose role is to protect the skin.
  • Skin

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the human body. Its main role is to protect. Skin is made up of the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis.
  • Skin lightening cream

    Cream containing one or more molecules (hydroquinone, kojic acid, vitamin C, liquorice) capable of lightening pigmentary lesions, such as melasma or post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentation. These creams have an inhibitive action on tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for synthesising melanin from tyrosine.
  • SPF

    Sun Protection Factors – the SPF is a measurement of the effectiveness of sunscreen. As the SPF increases the more protection the sunscreen gives against UV-B, which is the ultraviolet radiation that causes sunburn, and is a risk factor for skin cancer, and premature skin aging. The SPF is the amount of UV-B radiation required to cause sunburn on skin with the sunscreen on, relative to the amount required without the sunscreen. For example, if you wear SPF 20, your skin will not burn until it has been exposed to 20 times the amount of UV-B that would normally cause it to burn. The SPF that an individual will require depends on: • The skin type • Intensity of the solar energy, for example during the midday the sun is much stronger that morning and evening • The amount applied and frequency of re-application. • Activities in which one engages (for example, swimming leads to a loss of sunscreen from the skin). • Amount of sunscreen the skin has absorbed.
  • Stratum corneum

    The most external layer of the epidermis that acts as a barrier for the skin. In elderly people or individuals having been exposed excessively to the sun, the stratum corneum tends to be irregular and not very compact. Peels and certain creams are used to regain its functionality.
  • Sun exposure capital

    The skin’s protective system is efficient but fragile. Studies carried out in this area have shown that every individual has a sun exposure capital determined at birth. The sun exposure capital enables everyone to fight against a determined quantity of ultraviolet rays throughout your life. If the capital runs out, the skin can no longer protect itself against the sun’s attacks, and the damaged cells can no longer be repaired. By overstepping this limit, one can risk developing skin cancer, suffering premature and accelerated skin ageing.
  • Sun screen

    Cream or lotion capable of absorbing or reflecting ultraviolet rays given off by the sun. Sun screens contain a number of molecules in order to cover the widest possible spectrum of UV rays.Invisible to the naked eye, UV rays, or ultraviolet rays, do not heat (contrary to infrared rays), but can, however, provoke sunburns and damages the cells and extracellular matrix including collagen and elastin, causing solar elastosis.
  • Tonicity

    Tonicity is on of the criteria of young skin. It is ensured by the dermis, its collagen and elastin fibres. Young skin is firm and toned. With age, the dermis matrix deteriorates, the fibres loosen up: the skin looses firmness. Various techniques are available to tone up the skin.
  • Trace elements

    Trace elements are minerals present in the human body in very small quantities and in the food we eat. The human body must absorb trace elements in sufficient enough quantities to remain in good health and enable optimised functioning of its tissues. Examples of trace elements include calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, manganese and selenium. Some are injected by mesotherapy.
  • UVA

    UVA rays are the main cause of ageing of the skin. They represent 95% of UV rays that reach the skin. Present all year round, under all latitudes, these rays travel through clouds and panes of glass. They alter the skin’s structure in depth. As with UVBs, UVAs are involved in forming skin cancers.
  • UVB

    UVB rays reach the epidermis and are responsible for sunburn. They stimulate the production of melanin, and therefore the appearance of a tan. They also alter the DNA in the skin’s cells. Like UVAs, UVBs play a role in the formation of skin cancers. When purchasing as sun protection product it is important to buy one that protects against UV-A and UV-B. Conventional sunscreen does not block the majority of UVA radiation, however more recent broad spectrum sunscreen protects against UVA and UVB. The very best UVA protection is provided by products that contain zinc oxide, avobenzone, and ecamsule. When exposed to the sun, sun screen must be liberally and frequently – every 2 hours – applied to the skin since the molecules are destroyed as they absorb the UV rays.
  • Vitamin A

    Vitamin A helps to protect the structure of the cell membrane and plays an important role in maintaining a healthy skin, eyes and internal mucous membrane, whilst helping them all to resist infections. Vitamin A regulates the growth of the epidermis, the teeth, nails, hair, bone and glands. It is also essential for good vision. A deficiency in vitamin A leads to hyperkeratination, translating into dry skin, atrophy of the sebaceous glands, and duller-looking hair. In the dermis, vitamin A stimulates the synthesis of collagen and hyaluronic acid whilst protecting them from their degradation. In the fat tissues, vitamin A inhibits the transformation of pre-fat cells into mature fat cells, the latter alone being capable of storing fat.
  • Vitamin B3

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Niacinamide) has been demonstrated to have a stabilising effect of the epidermal barrier function and reduce water loss from the skin, therefore keeping it firm and hydrated. However, it essentially has three main uses: in skin cancer protection (as an immune protectant), treatment of pigmentation and in the treatment of acne by regulation of sebum production.
  • Vitamin B5

    Vitamin B5 plays an essential role in the cell’s metabolism. A deficiency provokes, amongst other things, ulcerations and alopecia. The absorption of vitamin B5 is best done through the skin and muscles than taken by mouth. It improves the hair’s water retention and therefore thickens it, preventing split ends. It also improves the nails’ elasticity.
  • Vitamin B6

    Vitamin B6 plays an essential role in the metabolism of amino acids and lipids. Its deficiency leads to seborrheic dermatitis of the skin (dandruff, redness on the nasolabial furrows), and cheilitis.
  • Vitamin B8

    Its deficiency leads to hyper-seborrhoea and squamous skin. It is used in association with vitamin B5 to improve the quality of the hair.
  • Vitamin C

    Vitamin C takes part in forming collagen, the substance that ensures the structure of the skin, muscles, vessels, bones and cartilage. Vitamin C also contributes to healthy teeth and gums and the absorption of iron. It is also a powerful antioxidant and can be used for its depigmentation properties. Its deficiency translates into healing problems.
  • Vitamin E

    Vitamin E helps to protect the cell membranes from oxidation; it also helps to maintain a healthy immune system and helps the body to use the vitamin A to the full. Vitamin E can be found in all tissues, keeping them healthy and functioning properly. It is liposoluble. In creams, the association of vitamin C and E helps to increase their efficiency and stability.
  • Vitamin K

    Vitamin K is essential to the blood’s coagulation and helps to maintain healthy bones. In cosmetics, in association with vitamin A, it has proven efficient in alleviating dark rings.